Symposium (6)

Perspectives on Creativity and Innovation

Coordinator: Vlad Petre Glaveanu

 

Emotional and Attentional Skills Conducive to Creativity Under Perceived Frustration or Success

Sergio Agnoli1; Laura Franchin2; Enrico Rubaltelli3; Serena Mastria1,4; Giovanni Emanuele Corazza1,4

1 Marconi Institute for Creativity, MIC

2 Department of Psychology and Cognitive Sciences, University of Trento

3 Department of Developmental and Socialization Psychology, University of Padova

4 Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering “Guglielmo Marconi”, University of Bologna

In the present talk, we focalize on the abilities to resist to frustration and to manage positive feedback as basic skills to succeed in a creative activity. The role of emotional and attentive processing during these affective situations was explored to understand the dynamics which determine creative performance. Moreover, the function of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been analysed to unravel the weight of individual differences in the creative performance in the face of perceived failure or success.

Specifically, we experimentally induced a perception of either frustration or success in two groups of participants, while they were involved in some divergent thinking tasks. During the two manipulation conditions, we tracked the participants’ affective states and attentional processing as well as trait EI. In particular, we measured the participants ability in processing task-related objects and task-unrelated (irrelevant) objects, as well as the participants affective arousal through eye tracking.

Results revealed that the affective arousal during perceived success produced an increase in response originality. During perceived frustration, instead, EI acted as a main moderator: whereas in low EI participants an arousal increase produced a drop in originality, in high EI participants the same increase was associated to an enhancement in originality. EI, moreover, acted as a main variable in the managing of attentional processing. While at low EI levels an increase in the processing of irrelevant information was associated to a decrease in originality, at high EI levels irrelevance processing was associated to a progressive increase in originality.

These findings reveal the central role of EI in the managing of the emotional reactions associated to a frustration condition and in managing the attentive mechanisms for filtering information during the ideational process.


Managing Creativity and Innovation: Theories and Practice from the Fields of Psychology, Education, Business and Engineering

Min Tang; Christian H. Werner

Institute for Creativity and Innovation, University of Applied Management, Germany

Though the importance of creativity and innovation has caught more and more attention in different fields, very seldom are theories and practice of creativity and innovation combined and compared. Zhou and Shalley (2008) noticed this separation, and urged that it is time to seriously consider how these two largely separate research streams can inform each other and benefit from each other. In this talk, we present our approach to the interdisciplinary exploration of the essentials of the management of creativity and innovation. Reviewing theories and cases studies of the management of creativity and innovation in psychology, education, business and engineering, we showcase how creativity and innovation are perceived, studied, and managed in these fields. We note that theories and practice from the field of education have much to say about the fostering of creativity at the individual level, whereas, at the organizational level, group creativ­ity is of more relevance. However, group creativity is not the simple sum of individual intelligence and creativity; therefore, management measures should be adapted taking into consideration a series of relational and organizational factors in the actual business practice. The inherent association of engineering and innovation provides rich insights to the practice of education and business, par­ticularly when it comes to the topics about product design and problem solving. Combining the experiences from the different disciplines, we conclude that teachers, managers and entrepreneurs need to strike a fine balance between flexibility and control and should adapt the multilevel approach to manage creativity and innovation.


Creativity and Development of Values in the Brazilian Educational Context: Contributions from Cultural Psychology

Mônica Souza Neves-Pereira

Departamento de Psicologia Escolar e do Desenvolvimento – PED; Instituto de Psicologia - Universidade de Brasília – UnB – Brazil

The study of creativity articulated with the development of values in the school context has been little explored in researches in from Brazil. Regarding creativity, it is relevant to investigate the conceptions about creativity constructed by the subjects, as well as the possible trajectories of co-construction of the creative competences of individuals in a school context. How does the subject perceive him/herself as creative (or not) and how is this creativity being developed in his/her school experience is our starting point for understanding this phenomenon. Regarding the development of values, with emphasis on cooperation, the focus is also on understanding the developmental trajectories of individuals in the classroom environment. How does the construction of values of the subject take place and how does he/she perceive him/herself as cooperative, represents the second moment of investigation. Searching for possible articulations, relationships and interferences between the processes of development of creativity and values represents a third movement of understanding these phenomena where the focus of research extension reaches the subject in his/her interactions in the school context, in the present moment, behaving and expressing themselves in relation to their creativity and values. Assuming the subject is constituted in its encounter with culture, by means of complex semiotic processes of internalisation and externalisation, and considering the school as a privileged space of human development, this research proposes a cultural psychological approach to creative phenomena and the construction of values, in development, in the school context of teachers and students within Brazilian schools.


The Relationship Between Creativity and Mental Speed: A Validation Study

Valentin Bucik

Department of Psychology, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

It is reasonable to expect a relationship between two important constructs in cognitive functioning, creativity and speed of information processing, also with respect to memory capacity. Faster mental processing and wider memory span would allow one to learn the elements relevant to a domain and to screen more ideas for creative potential more quickly. However, there is evidence that highly creative individuals exhibit cognitive disinhibition and defocused attention. They seem to perform better at adjusting their focus of attention as a function of task demands. When the task is ill defined and ambiguity is high, attention is defocused, which results in slower processing on the task. In contrast, when the task is well defined and ambiguity is low, attention is focused, resulting in faster processing on the task. Their speed of mental processing on poorly defined items may be slower because they are poor at filtering out irrelevant aspects of stimuli. Some empirical evidence shows that more creative people should show faster reaction times (RTs) on unambiguous tasks and slower RTs on ambiguous tasks than less creative people. In present study participants performed on Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices for general factor of intelligence and the Berlin model of Intelligence Structure (BIS -4) test including processing speed, memory, processing capacity and creativity in verbal, numerical and figural contents, as well as on different mental speed tasks, a Lindley's Coding Test and paper-and-pencil tests following the rationales of the Sternberg and the Posner paradigms. Different concurrent structural models of relationship between creativity (imagination or richness of ideas) and mental speed, with memory and cognitive capacity or task complexity as covariates were proposed, validated, concurrently analysed and discussed. Results show that more creative individuals get slower when tasks are getting more complicated. Possible consequences of non-differentiated testing conditions for more creative and less creative individuals of comparable intelligence are discussed.


The Way Employees’ Actions can Produce Changes in an Organizational Culture and Possibly Turn it More Favorable to Creativity

Asdrúbal Borges Formiga Sobrinho

Universidade de Brasília – UnB, Brasília – Brazil

How can factors like pressure and hierarchy influence individual creativity in the work environment? In the contemporary literature about creativity in organizations sometimes those factors can both be considered constraints and sometimes they can become facilitators. However, remaining questions may consider how can their meaning change or what cause changes in a given organizational culture. This paper aims to demonstrate how this happens in a Brazilian public organization, by considering some employees’ actuations especially those which concern their interpersonal communication strategies. To reach that goal, the thematical content analysis method was applied to individual interviews of three employees. Considering limits, contradictions and ambiguities in their speeches and actuations, the results point to the fact that environmental factors like press and hierarchy can change their meanings according to employees’ actions and interactions with others and with their managers. Thus, the question to be answered could turn to be: how can individual actions influence the work environment in the way of trying to make it more favourable for creativity?


Short Biographies

Giovanni in ICIE Conference
Giovanni Emanuele Corazza is a Full Professor at the Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Member of the Alma Mater Board of Directors, founder of the Marconi Institute for Creativity, Member of the Marconi Society Board of Directors, and President of the Scientific Committee of the Fondazione Guglielmo Marconi. He is the originator of the dynamic definition of creativity. He was Head of the Department of Electronics, Computer Science and Systems (DEIS) in the years 2009-2012, Chairman of the School for Telecommunications in the years 2000-2003, Chairman of the Advanced Satellite Mobile Systems Task Force (ASMS‑TF), Founder and Chairman of the Integral Satcom Initiative (ISI), a European Technology Platform devoted to Satellite Communications, Member of the Board of the 5G Infrastructure Association and Vice-Chairman of the NetWorld2020 European Technology Platform in the years 2013-2016. In the years 1997-2012, he has served as Editor for Communication Theory and Spread Spectrum for the IEEE Transactions on Communications. He is author of more than 300 papers, and received the Marconi International Fellowship Young Scientist Award in 1995, the IEEE 2009 Satellite Communications Distinguished Service Award, the 2013 Newcom# Best Paper Award, the 2002 IEEE VTS Best System Paper Award, the Best Paper Award at IEEE ISSSTA’98, at IEEE ICT2001, and at ISWCS 2005. He has been the General Chairman of the IEEE ISSSTA 2008, ASMS 2004-2012 Conferences, MIC Conference 2013-2016. His research interests are in creativity and innovation, 5G systems, navigation and positioning.
 
Sergio Agnoli in ICIE Conference
Sergio Agnoli, Ph.D., is senior researcher at the Marconi Institute for Creativity (MIC), a body created as a joint initiative of the Fondazione Guglielmo Marconi and the University of Bologna, to investigate and divulgate all of the most recent scientific evidence on creative thinking. He has held teaching appointments at the University of Bologna, University of Padova and the University of Ferrara, where he served as teaching assistant for many university courses. He is member of the APA Division 10 (Society for the Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts). His research interests include: cognitive and emotional substrates of creative thinking; creative thinking process; emotional development and emotional intelligence; psycho-physiology of emotions. In these fields, Sergio Agnoli has published many contributions in peer reviewed international conferences and journals and he established collaborations with several research groups and universities.
 
Laura in ICIE conference
Laura Franchin, Ph.D., is a researcher at the Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science, University of Trento. Her research interests include: Origin and development of emotion and cognition in humans, with a focus on moral cognition, emotional expressions, attention and creative thinking. In these fields, she has published many contributions in peer reviewed international and national conferences and journals and she established collaborations with several research groups.
 
 
 
 
Enrico in ICIE conference
Enrico Rubaltelli, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Psychology and the Department of Developmental and Socialization Psychology at the University of Padova, Italy. He teaches classes on Judgment and Decision-making at the School of Psychology, the Law School, and the Galilean School of Higher Studies of the University of Padova. Rubaltelli’s main research focus is on cognitive and affective processes involved in economic decision-making. Recently he has published a series of papers on how trait emotional intelligence impacts people’s financial decisions and prosocial behaviors.
 
 
 
Serena in ICIE Conference
Serena Mastria, Ph.D., is postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, University of Bologna and the Marconi Institute for Creativity (MIC). She holds a PhD in Psychological Sciences, from the Department of Psychology, University of Bologna. Her research interests involve: processes and mechanisms underlying visual perception of emotional natural scenes; the attentional and emotional mechanisms underlying creativity.
 
 
 
Min Tang in ICIE Conference
Min Tang is Professor in International Management and Executive Director of the Institute for Creativity and Innovation at the University of Applied Management, Germany. She is member of the American Psychological Association Division 10 and jury of the International Exhibition for Ideas, Invention, and Innovation (iENA). She is the initiator and manager of a series of intercultural and interdisciplinary programs about creativity and innovation, including the “Applied Creativity across Domains” summer school, funded by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the ERASMUS IP summer school, “Effective Management of Creativity and Innovation” funded by the EU. Her research fields include systems approach to creativity, implicit theories of creativity, inventive creativity, and cross-cultural studies.
 
Christian H. Werner actively pursues his passion for teaching, research and univer­sity leadership in various roles at multiple universities in Europe, and as founder and President of the International University Network (IUN), he is dedicated to innova­tions in higher education. Following his international education with Ph.D. in both Economics and Educational Psychology, his professional career spans many years in business consultancy, with a current focus on innovation in business and education. Currently he is a professor of Educational Management at the University Seeburg Castel in Austria and of Business Psychology at the University of Applied Management in Germany. He has published widely on these topics and has initiated a variety of innovative programs in Germany and worldwide, winning numerous innovation prizes such as the “Innovation Prize of the Bavarian Government”. His research fields cover applied creativity and innovation, entrepreneurship and educational management.
 
Mônica in ICIE Conference
Mônica Souza Neves-Pereira holds a Bachelor's degree in Pedagogy from University of Brasília (1982), Master´s degree in Psychology from University of Brasília (1996) and Ph.D. degree in Psychology from University of University of Brasília (2003). She is an associate professor at the Institute of Psychology - University of Brasília and belongs to the Department of School and Developmental Psychology. Professor Neves-Pereira develops research related to creativity, values and violence on a human development perspective. She participates in the Laboratory of Cultural Psychology - LABMIS, composing an institutional research group in this area and also belongs to the group of teachers associated with the International Center for Cultural Psychology of Creativity (ICCPC) at the University of Aalborg - Denmark.
 
 
Valentin Bucik studied psychology (and reached PhD in 1993) at University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He works as Full Professor for psychological methodology at the Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. He was head of department, vice-dean and dean of the faculty, serving two terms. Now he is head of department again. He teaches different courses at all three levels of study of psychology in Ljubljana, including Research methodology, Multivariate data analysis, Test theory, Applied psychometrics and Intelligence, giftedness and creativity. He was a visiting professor or invited lecturer at state universities in Sarajevo, Zagreb, Rijeka, Graz, Trier, Bratislava and Zürich. For the last four years he is a trustee of all three cycles of psychology studies (and visiting professor) at the University of SS Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Slovak Republic. He was one of the associate editors of the European Journal of Psychological Assessment and secretary general of the European Association of Psychological Assessment, and is member of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences and the International Society for Intelligence Research. He served as chair of the National Committee for Matura (2004-2008) and was a member of the committee from 1998 to 2016. He is also a member of Expert group for gifted education at the National education institute of the Republic of Slovenia. His main research areas are psychological methodology, psychological testing, test construction and adaptation, and various areas of differential psychology (structure of intelligence, the role of speed-of-information processing in g, relationship between intelligence, temperament and personality structure), as well as methodological problems of standardized knowledge assessment and examination in schools, tracking the standards of quality in school and educational system evaluation. Lately he is focused on different models explaining giftedness and is particularly interested in the relationship between giftedness and creativity and in the impact that creativity (especially creativity in arts) has on the development, education and academic efficacy in children and youth.
 
Asdrúbal Borges Formiga Sobrinho teaches at the Communication department and develops researches about creativity in that department and at Psychology, both at Universidade de Brasília – UnB. He coordinates the research project The Importance of Communication to the Emergence and Development of New Ideas (A Importância da Comunicação para a Emergência e o desenvolvimento de Novas Ideias) and supervises undergraduate, as well master and Ph.D. students. Based on Cultural Psychology, during his Ph.D. in Psychology, he studied how youth becomes an important value in Brazilian advertisement. As researcher, he had worked with creativity in work routines of advertisement productions and , with the support of the Brazilian Research Institutions Capes (Coordination of Support for Researchers Improvement) and Fapitec (Foundation for Support of Research and Technological Innovation at the State of Sergipe), creativity in educational practices by considering the influence of environmental variables. His current interest and theme form postdoctoral research at the department of Communication and Psychology of Aalborg University is in creativity in the organizational environment, by considering interactions among individual and organizational factors.